domingo, 23 de mayo de 2010
Francisco de Vitoria es heredero de la escolástica. Se caracteriza esta por el método dialéctico sic et nunc. Dicho simplemente por afirmar una proposición y negar las posturas contrarias. Por ejemplo, presenta una proposición que se considera contraria a la opinión del autor, luego ofrece las razones que podrían sustentar esa opinión y, finalmente, da las opiniones que echan por tierra la opinión inicial y ponen en claro la postura del autor.
Para esta metodología, la lógica aristotélica era ideal. El principio de identidad (A es A); la exclusión de medio (A no es transito entre A y B) y el principio de no contradicción (A no es B). Pero además de utilizar el método lógico (órganon) de Aristóteles, también se usaban ampliamente sus escritos y los de otros pensadores grecorromanos, de los cuales se extraían ideas o sustentación para las ideas propias.
En Francisco de Vitoria, Political Writings (Cambridge, 2008), la introducción discute por oposición, la idea de Vitoria sobre la interpretación bíblica. Debía atenerse en todo a la interpretación autorizada por la Iglesia. Abominaba a los “nuevos gramáticos”, como denominaba a los humanistas por su escolaridad textual ajena a la interpretación bíblica católica. El texto dice que “ciertamente había leído ampliamente la literatura clásica”. También que descansaba más que la mayoría de teólogos en las obras de séneca y Cicerón.
Al intensificarse la lucha contra el luteranismo, del cual Vitoria tiene noticias según sus escritos, considera el método humanista de lectura de la Biblia como terreno resbaloso que condujo a la herejía protestante. Por eso atacó a Lutero por interpretar la escritura “sola gramática”, sin la ayuda de la patrística y la escolástica. Los departamentos de lenguas clásicas, latín, griego, hebreo y sánscrito, tomaron la hermenéutica gramático histórica del renacimiento, similar a la de la Reforma, y con ella se enseña aun hoy dichas lenguas en España, Inglaterra y Alemania. La pregunta es ¿por qué? Porque si el propósito de los textos judeocristianos no es esconder sino dar a conocer a Dios, cualquiera que usa los métodos literarios correctos debería poder leerlos.
No se puede juzgar a las ciencias bíblicas en la persona de Vitoria pues sería como juzgar la medicina en la persona de Hipócrates. Por ejemplo, su ensayo sobre “el poder de la Iglesia”, insiste en definir eklesia según la etimología, incurriendo en lo que hoy se denuncia como la “falacia de la raíz”. El peso que tiene la comunidad en Vitoria sigue la influencia del pueblo de Israel como modelo de la Iglesia Católica. Dios es el autor de la ley divina positiva y la Iglesia y la cristiandad se sostienen al impulso de ese modelo original, Dios, sacerdotes y comunidad.
El análisis de causas prestado de los griegos (formal, material, eficiente y final), usado por Vitoria, tiene como causa final la vida en sociedad y la sobrevivencia. En su ensayo sobre el poder civil, da por sentado que el poder se haya desarrollado. Se citan indistintamente diversos periodos de la historia bíblica en los que el poder se haya en distintos estadios de desarrollo. En los patriarcas es una cosa, en Egipto con Moisés es otra cosa; los jueces lo reflejan diferente a la monarquía de Israel. Vitoria cita textos de todos lados sin atender al proceso genético del poder. En economía diríamos “ las cosas no permanecen constantes”.
La ley es una función de la razón y qué entiende el por razón: “es el acuerdo o el juicio que forma la conclusión de un silogismo”. El imperio del método escolástico, difícilmente se expresa con mayor claridad.
lunes, 17 de mayo de 2010
Dice Calvino sobre nuestros lideres políticos:
"Porque las Escrituras nos enseñan que una república bien constituida es un singular beneficio de Dios, mientras que por otros lado, un Estado desordenado con gobernantes impíos y pervertidores de la ley es un signo de la ira de Dios en contra nuestra… Por lo tanto, aun cuando el mundo está inundado con un diluvio de impiedad e iniquidad, no nos maravillemos si vemos tanto pillaje y robos por parte de la gente en todas partes, y reyes y príncipes que piensan que ellos merecen todo lo que ellos desean, simplemente porque nadie se les opone". Institución de la Religión Cristiana, Libro IV, cap. XX, 8.
Sobre el equilibri de poderes dice:
"Y por eso, el vicio y los defectos de los hombres son la razón de que la forma de gobierno más pasable y segura sea aquella en que gobiernan muchos, ayudándose los unos a los otros y avisándose de su deber; y si alguno se levanta más de lo conveniente, que los otros le sirvan de censores y amos". Ibid. Libro IV, cap. XX, 8.
La ley sirve formativamente como guía moral para el pueblo de Dios (2. VII, 12). La vida en la gran sociedad esta guiada por la ley de Dios.
"No será ahora difícil ver cuál es la intención y el fin de toda la Ley: a saber, una justicia perfecta, para que la vida del hombre esté del todo conforme con el dechado de la divina pureza. Porque de tal manera pintó Dios en ella su naturaleza y condición, que si alguno cumpliese lo que en ella está mandado, reflejaría en su vida en cierta manera la imagen misma de Dios". Institución, Libro 2, cap. VIII, 51.
lunes, 10 de mayo de 2010
John Knox (c. 1510 – 24 November 1572) was a Scottish clergyman and leader of the Protestant Reformation who is considered the founder of the Presbyterian denomination. He was educated at the University of St Andrews and worked as a notary-priest. He joined the movement to reform the Scottish church.
While in exile, Knox was licensed to work in the Church of England, where he quickly rose in the ranks to serve King Edward VI of England as a royal chaplain. In this position, he exerted a reforming influence on the text of the Book of Common Prayer, title of a number of prayer books of the Church of England. The work of 1549 was the first prayer book to contain the forms of service for daily and Sunday worship in English and to do so within a single volume; it included morning prayer, evening prayer, the Litany, and Holy Communion. The book covered other occasional services: baptism, confirmation, marriage, 'prayers to be said with the sick' and a funeral service. It set out in Epistle and Gospel readings for the Sunday Communion Service. Set Old Testament and New Testament readings for daily prayer as were the set Psalms; and canticles, that were provided to be sung between the readings (Careless 2003, p. 26).
Knox first moved to Geneva and then to Frankfurt. In Geneva, he met John Calvin, from whom he gained experience and knowledge of Reformed theology and Presbyterian polity. He created a new order of service, which was eventually adopted by the reformed church in Scotland.
On his return to Scotland, he led the Protestant Reformation in Scotland, in partnership with the Scottish Protestant nobility. In the History of the Reformation in Scotland, Knox gives a record of the drama which unfolded. A supplication was laid before the Parliament by the Protestant nobility, decrying the corruptions of Roman Catholicism, and seeking the abolition of Popery. In response, the Parliament directed the Protestant noblemen and ministers to draw up "in plain and several heads, the sum of that doctrine which they would maintain, and would desire that present Parliament to establish as wholesome, true, and only necessary to be believed and received within that realm."
Parliament reconvened on 15 January 1561 to consider the Book of Discipline. The Kirk was to be run on democratic lines. The plan included a system of national education based on universality as a fundamental principle. Certain areas of law were placed under ecclesiastical authority.
He continued to serve as the religious leader of the Protestants throughout Mary's reign. In several interviews with the queen, Knox admonished her for supporting Catholic practices. Eventually, when she was imprisoned for her alleged role in the murder of her husband, Lord Darnley, and James VI enthroned in her stead, he openly called for her execution.
On 29 July 1567, Knox preached James VI's coronation sermon at the church in Stirling. During this period Knox thundered against her in his sermons, even to the point of calling for her death. However, Mary's life was spared, and she escaped on 2 May 1568.
On his return to Scotland, John Knox led the Protestant Reformation in Scotland, in partnership with the Scottish Protestant nobility.
In the History of the Reformation in Scotland, Knox gives a record of the drama which unfolded. A supplication was laid before the Parliament by the Protestant nobility, decrying the corruptions of Roman Catholicism, and seeking the abolition of Popery.
In response, the Parliament directed the Protestant noblemen and ministers to draw up "in plain and several heads, the sum of that doctrine which they would maintain, and would desire that present Parliament to establish as wholesome, true, and only necessary to be believed and received within that realm."
La confesión escocesa busca relacionar lo espiritual y lo material de la siguiente manera (en el siglo XVI !!!!)
· On God: “…we confess and believe all things in heaven and in earth, as well visible as invisible, to have been created, to be retained in their being, and to be ruled and guided by his inscrutable Providence, to such end as his eternal wisdom, goodness, and justice has appointed them, to the manifestation of his own glory”.
· On the Creatiotion of man: “We confess and acknowledge this our God to have created man (to wit, our first father Adam) to his own image and similitude, to whom he gave wisdom, lordship, justice, free will, and clear knowledge of himself”.
· The Cause of Good Works: “So that the cause of good works we confess to be, not our free will, but the Spirit of the Lord Jesus who, dwelling in our hearts by true faith, brings forth such good works as God has prepared for us to walk into…And therefore we fear not to affirm that murderers, oppressors, cruel persecutors, adulterers, whoremongers, filthy persons, idolaters, drunkards, thieves, and all workers of iniquity, have neither true faith, neither any portion of the spirit of sanctification, which proceeds from the Lord Jesus, so long as obstinately they continue in their wickedness”.
· What Works are Reputed Good Before God: “We confess and acknowledge that God has given to man his holy law, in which not only are forbidden all such works as displease and offend his godly Majesty, but also are commanded all such as please him, and as he has promised to reward. And these works are of two sorts: the one are done to the honour of God, the other to the profit of our neighbours; and both have the revealed will of God for their assurance.”
· “To have one God; to worship and honour him; to call upon him in all our troubles; to reverence his holy name; to hear his word; to believe the same; to communicate with his holy sacraments, are the works of the first table. To honour father, mother, princes, rulers, and superior powers; to love them, to support them, yea, to obey their charges (not repugning to the commandment of God); to save the lives of innocents; to repress tyranny; to defend the oppressed; to keep our bodies clean and holy; to live in sobriety and temperance; to deal justly with all men, both in word and in deed; and, finally, to repress all appetite of our neighbour's hurt, are the good works of the second table, which are most pleasing and acceptable unto God, as those works that are commanded by himself. The contrary whereof is sin most odious, which always displeases him, and provokes him to anger: as, not to call upon him alone, when we have need; not to hear his word with reverence”.
· The Perfection of the Law and Imperfection of Man: “The law of God we confess and acknowledge most just, most equal, most holy, and most perfect: commanding those things which, being wrought in perfection, were able to give life, and able to bring man to eternal felicity”.
· “We do not mean that we are set so at liberty, that we owe no obedience to the law (for that before we have plainly confessed). But this we affirm, that no man in earth (Christ Jesus only excepted) has given, gives, or shall give in work, that obedience to the law which the law requires. But when we have done all things, we must fall down and unfeignedly confess, that we are unprofitable servants”.
· Of the Kirk: “…The world shall be, a kirk: that is to say, a company and multitude of men chosen of God, who rightly worship and embrace him, by true faith in Christ Jesus, who is the only Head of the same kirk, which also is the body and spouse of Christ Jesus; which kirk is Catholic that is, universal because it contains the elect of all ages, all realms, nations, and tongues, be they of the Jews, or be they of the Gentiles; who have communion and society with God the Father, and with his Son Christ Jesus, through the sanctification of his Holy Spirit… out of the which kirk there is neither life, nor eternal felicity. And therefore we utterly abhor the blasphemy of them that affirm that men which live according to equity and justice shall be saved, what religion that ever they have professed.”
· On the Notes of the True Kirk: “The notes, therefore, of the true kirk of God we believe, confess, and avow to be: first, the true preaching of the word of God, into the which God has revealed himself to us, as the writings of the prophets and apostles do declare; secondly, the right administration of the sacraments of Christ Jesus, which must be annexed unto the word and promise of God, to seal and confirm the same in our hearts; last, ecclesiastical discipline uprightly ministered, as God's word prescribes, whereby vice is repressed, and virtue nourished”.
· “And such kirks we, the inhabitants of the realm of Scotland, professors of Christ Jesus, confess ourselves to have in our cities, towns, and places reformed; for the doctrine taught in our kirks is contained in the written word of God: to wit, in the books of the New and Old Testaments: in those books, we mean, which of the ancient have been reputed canonical, in the which we affirm that all things necessary to be believed for the salvation of mankind are sufficiently expressed”.
· “When controversy then happens, for the right understanding of any place or sentence of scripture, or for the reformation of any abuse within the kirk of God, we ought not so much to look what men before us have said or done, as unto that which the Holy Ghost uniformly speaks within the body of the scriptures, and unto that which Christ Jesus himself did, and commanded to be done”.
· On General Councils, Authority and Causes of their Convention: “As we do not rashly damn that which godly men, assembled together in general councils, lawfully gathered, have proponed unto us; so without just examination dare we not receive whatsoever is obtruded unto men under the name of general councils. For plain it is, as they were men, so have some of them manifestly erred, and that in matters of great weight and importance…So far then as the council proves the determination and commandment that it gives by the plain word of God, so far do we reverence and embrace the same. But if men, under the name of a council, pretend to forge unto us new articles of our faith, or to make constitutions repugning to the word of God, then utterly we must refuse the same as the doctrine of devils, which draws our souls from the voice of our only God to follow the doctrines and constitutions of men.”
· “But the cause of councils (we mean of such as merit the name of councils), was partly for confutation of heresies, and for giving public confession of their faith to the posterity following: which both they did by the authority of God's written word, and not by any opinion or prerogative that they could not err, by reason of their general assembly. And this we judge to have been the chief cause of general councils. The other was for good policy and order to be constituted and observed in the kirk, in which (as in the house of God) it becomes all things to be done decently and into order.Not that we think that any policy, and one order in ceremonies can be appointed for all ages, times, and places: for as ceremonies (such as men have devised) are but temporal, so may and ought they to be changed, when they rather foster superstition than that they edify the kirk using the same”.
· On Civil Magistrate: “We confess and acknowledge empires, kingdoms, dominions, and cities to be distinguished and ordained by God: the powers and authorities in the same (be it of emperors in their empires, of kings in their realms, dukes and princes in their dominions, or of other magistrates in free cities) to be God's holy ordinance, ordained for manifestation of his own glory, and for the singular profit and commodity of mankind. So that whosoever goes about to take away or to confound the whole state of civil policies, now long established; we affirm the same men not only to be enemies to mankind, but also wickedly to fight against God's expressed will.